Improver [1101(ii)] is a food additive derived from papain, an enzyme extracted from the raw fruit of the papaya plant. When the peel of an unripe papaya is scratched or scored it leaks a milky substance, from which papain is derived and then it is processed further by the methods like sun drying, tray drying or spray drying to obtain Improver [1101(ii)] .It exists as white to light tan powder or liquid. It's fuction in food is to catalyse the breakdown of proteins. The enzyme papain helps break proteins down into smaller protein components called peptides and then further into amino acids in foods like meats, poultry, fish, cheese, nuts, and eggs.
Improver [1101(ii)] may cause allergy in people due to papain. The tendency is greatest in people with allergy to latex or kiwi. Symptoms can include an itchy mouth, sneezing, watery eyes, nasal congestion, excessive sweating, and diarrhea.
It may lead to a life-threatening body reaction known as anaphylaxis. People who take anticoagulants like Coumadin/warfarin or antiplatelet drugs like Plavix/clopidogrel should avoid the consumption of Improver [1101(ii)] as it interferes with these medications.
It can lower blood sugar and should be consumed carefully by those on diabetes medications as it may lead to hypoglycemia which is an abnormally low blood sugar level.(1)
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